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May 11, 2011
 

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SENTINEL TRIBUNE Wednesday, May 11,2011 Page 8 Weekly Science Quiz by Douglas Clark The Myth of Cold Fusion Part Two Last week we learned about the experiments per- formed by Pons and Fleishmann in which they used heavy Water to create deuterium by running a cur- rent through it. Then a palla- dium electrode would absorb the deuterium where it was claimed that fusion took place, releasing more energy than what was put into the system. Sounds great, right? Energy so cheap it wouldn't even be worth metering. But shortly after their press con- ference, problems began to develop. The first problem was that they were not able to propose a mechanism for how fusion could occur at room temperature. In order to fuse atoms, one must over- come the substantial electro- static force when you try and bring two positively-charged nuclei close enough together so that the strong nuclear force will be able to act upon them. Normally it would require temperatures in excess of 120 million C. To say that the deuterium gas is compressed 900 times by a palladium electrode isn't going to even get you close. Consider, for example, the planet Jupiter which has a layer of hydrogen near its core that is believed to be in excess of 30,000 C and pressure tens of thousands of times greater than normal atmospheric pressure on Earth, yet this is not enough to fuse hydrogen which is why the gas giant is a planet and not a star. Another problem was that their experiment was set up to measure heat and not the by-products of nuclear fusion, specifically neutrons, gamma rays, helium and tri- tium. In the following weeks, several labs were announcing -.they could reproduce parts of the experiment, but not all. The Department of Energy could not reproduce the results. And despite all the claims, in the end there was never any solid evidence for the production of helium, gamma rays or neutrons. A few labs found small amounts of tritium, but not enough to be more than what could be explained by contamination. These labs were in the busi- ness of measuring nuclear products and thus had plenty of sources of possible con- tamination--something very difficult to avoid when you are looking for such low lev- els in the first place. It turns out that data had been altered before going to congress to appeal for fund- ing. A graph had been fudged to match expected results. By May 1989, the gig was up. The American Physical Society held a session on cold fusion, at which many reports of failed experiments were heard. At the session's end, eight of the nine leading speakers said they consid- ered the initial Pons and Fleischmann claim dead. Steven Koonin of Caltech called the Utah report a result of "the incompetence and delusion of Pons and Fleischmann" which was met with applause. Physics Today, in a 2005 report, stat- ed that new reports of cold fusion were still no more convincing than 15 years pre- vious. Its a good reminder that we must always rely on the scientific method to arrive at the truth. 1) True or false: Fusion requires temperatures in excess of 120 million C in order to take place. 2) Which of the following is not a by-product of fusion? a) heat b) neutrons c) heli- um d) heavy water 3) True or false: Tritium is an isotope of hydrogen. 4) In order to fuse two positively-charged nuclei, you must overcome a sub- stantial force, a) strong b) electrostatic c) gravitational d) nuclear 5) What does science rely on to arrive at the truth? (Answers on Page 2) Copyright (C) 2011 Weekly Science Quiz All rights reserved. CLASSIFIED ADS ESULTS Security Bank Storden, MN Phone 507-445-3417 187580 MENU May 16-20, 2011 Monday: Spaghetti, bread sticks, vegetable, carrot sticks, fruit, bread, milk Tuesday: Chicken nug- gets, potato, carrot sticks, fruit, bread, milk Wednesday: Cook's choice Thursday: Cook's choice Friday: Tony's pizza, veg- etable, fruit, bread, milk Sounds of Sprin! Conce# this School Choir Concert and Recital is going to be on Sunday, May 15. It has been over 20 years since a concert has been presented on a Sunday afternoon. The recit- al will begin at 2:00 and the concert will follow at 3:00. The vocal students performed very well at solo and ensem- ble contest on May 7, and many will present their selec- tions at the recital. The con- cert will include percussion- ists, banjos and guitars, vio- linists, and flutes that will accompany a wide variety of music. Please join us for an afternoon of choral music! QUESTION OF THE WEEI( Q: Safety is always a con- cern when out on the water fishing or just enjoying one of Minnesota's thousands of lakes and rivers. With the 2011 fishing season upon us, what do boaters need to remember about early sea- son boating? A: When getting ready for opener, many people give more thought to what kind of sandwiches they should pack for lunch than they do about boating safety. It is important for people to remember that early in the season, although the air temperature may be 70 degrees, most of the bodies of water are still in the mid-40s. Even the strongest swimmer who falls overboard can become quickly incapacitated by the sudden gasp for air called cold water shock and inhale water. This means it is especially important to make sure everyone not only has a lifejacket but also wears one. Make sure navigation lights are all in proper working order, and be sure use them between sunset and sunrise. Also, be sure the boat regis- tration decal is current and check air pressure on trailer tires, pack a spare and make sure the axle bearings are freshly greased. Finally, it is a good idea to leave the alcohol at home. Many of the boating accidents that result in injury, or worse, are the result of intoxicated boaters. Information regarding Open House graduation ads in the Sentinel Tribune has been given to all seniors. Please ask your son or daughter for it so you don't miss the deadline of May 13. I,I I [: 1 CoL "ad I 1COL x3" ad - $15i90 All grad ads must be pre-paid. e The Westbrook Walnut Grove School is or outside the building before and after this participating in the Summer Food Service noon meal. There will be no supervision Program that is free to all children, 18 years outside the school building. Again, the stu- of age and under, dents are asked not to come until 11:00 a.m. They will be serving lunch from 11:00 a.m. or later for each meal. Once students are done to 12:15 p.m .starting on Monday, May 23. eating, they are asked to go back to their nor- This program will serve the last summer meal mal daily activities. on Thursday, July 28. All students are eligi- In accordance with federal law and U.S. ble for this free lunch program. There is no Department of Agriculture policy, this institu- charge. Again, meals will be provided to all tion is prohibited from discriminating on the children without charge. Acceptance and par- basis of race, color, national origin, sex, age, ticipation requirements for the program and or disability. all activities are the same for all regardless of To file a complaint of discrimination, write race, color, national origin, gender, age, or USDADirector, Office of Adjudication, 1400 disability and there will be no discrimination Independence Avenue SW, Washington, D.C. in the course of meal service. Meals will be 20250-9410 or call toll free (866) 632-9992 provided at the Walnut Grove School lunch- (Voice). Individuals who are hearing room Monday through Thursday from 11:00- impaired or have speech disabilities may con- 12:15 p.m. from May 23 through July 29. tact USDA through the Federal Relay Service Transportation to and from lunch will be at (800) 877-8339, or (800) 845-6136 your own responsibility. Doors will not open (Spanish). USDA is an equal opportunity until 11:00 a.m. There will be summer clean- provider and employer. ing going on in the school so the students are If you have more questions please call 507- asked that there is no running around inside 859-2141. COLLEGE NEWS Amber Amundson to study abroad Amber Amudson, Westbrook is among the Northwestern College stu- dents who will head to Germny this summer on a three-week study abroad pro- grams led by NWC profes- sors. German language, culture and history are the focus of a course taught by Dr. Michael Hensak, a professor in the English and foreign languag- es departments, and Glenda De Vries, a German tutor and manager of Northwestern's bookstore. Along with daily German language classes, students will study German consumer habits and lifestyle choices, the country's Gothic cathedrals and art, and atti- tudes toward the environ- ment and American foreign policy. Students Receive Awards at the Ridgewater College Agriculture Department Annual Awards Banquet Agriculture students were honored at the Agriculture Department Awards Banquet which was held at Ridgewater College-Willmar Campus on Tuesday, April 5. Students received awards for their par- ticipation in state and nation- al Postsecondary Agriculture Students (PAS) contests. The state PAS contests were held in Marshall, Minnesota in February and the national contests were held in Springfield, Illinois in March. Zachery Otto of Walnut Grove, the son of Jeff and Monica Otto, was recognized at the banquet for being on the Ridgewater dean's list. Denise Tietz receives scholar- ship Denise Tietz of Walnut Grove has been named recip- ient of a $200 Public Relations Student Society of America Scholarship (PRSSA) from the Department of Mass Communications at Minnesota State University, Mankato for the 2011-2012 academic school year. To be eligible for this scholarship, the student must be enrolled and declare a major in mass communica- tions; have a 3.0 or higher cumulative GPA; completed Introduction to Mass Communications and Media Writing I; be enrolled in one or more mass communica- tions courses beyond Media Writing I; and reflect those qualities the full-time faculty of the department deem req- uisite in a competent and respected media communica- tor. In addition, the student must be an active member of PRSSA and must indicate membership in the MSU Chapter of PRSSA. Must also demonstrate high schol- arship and anticipate a career in public relations. This award was given out on Media Day, April 26. Luke Nelson receives SMSU Scholarship Southwest Minnesota State University in Marshall, MN, announced that Luke Nelson, son of Steve and Jan Nelson of Westbrook, Minn has been selected to receive a University Gala Scholarship for the 2011-2012 academic year. Recipients of these scholarships are recognized for their academic accom- plishments and outstanding leadership abilities. His planned major field of study is music education. FIND THE CLASSIFIED CALL 274-6136 OR 1-800-410-185 for your graduation party/ 274-5555 Westbrook 188343